Offsetters Signs Share Exchange Agreement to Acquire Assets of Forest Finance … – Satellite PR News (press release)

Offsetters Signs Share Exchange Agreement to Acquire Assets of Forest Finance
Satellite PR News (press release)
100% of the equity in ForestFinest Consulting GmbH (“ForestFinest”) of Germany, which is a leading international consultancy service provider for sustainable land use projects in the managed forest and agroforestry Space. ForestFinest is responsible

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Offsetters Signs Share Exchange Agreement to Acquire Assets of Forest Finance … – MarketWatch

Offsetters Signs Share Exchange Agreement to Acquire Assets of Forest Finance
MarketWatch
100% of the equity in ForestFinest Consulting GmbH ("ForestFinest") of Germany, which is a leading international consultancy service provider for sustainable land use projects in the managed forest and agroforestry space. ForestFinest is responsible

Interview: UN official urges more knowledge about individual country’s land loss – Shanghai Daily (subscription)

Interview: UN official urges more knowledge about individual country's land loss
Shanghai Daily (subscription)
BONN, Germany, June 17 (Xinhua) — It is not a matter of technology, finance or manpower, but lack of knowledge about land that mainly blocks the actual efforts of human society to fight against desertification, the Executive Secretary of the United

Natural variation of macrophyte vegetation of lowland streams at the regional level

Publication date: Available online 27 December 2014
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters
Author(s): Gerhard Wiegleb , Wolfgang Herr , Bärbel Zander , Udo Bröring , Holger Brux , Klaus van de Weyer
In the present study, we present a synopsis of two macrophyte surveys of physiographic units in northwest Germany carried out over one decade. Data were used to test a set of hypotheses on macrophyte distribution at the regional level. Rank-frequency curves resembled the broken stick model. Twenty-one species of the 59 most frequent species occurred at high frequencies above 15 percent. Helophytes made up a high percentage (12 of 21) of the frequent species. Phalaris arundinacea was the most frequent species in both sampling periods. Most species showed no considerable change in frequency over time, among them the core hydrophytes. Spatial variation of species frequencies among physiographical units showed a unimodal distribution in relation to frequency. Spatial variation of frequencies of functional groups was significantly lower. Most uneven distribution among physiographical units was found in cryptogams. DCA ordinations of physiographical units showed a spatial gradient from alluvial plains to higher grounds units, which remained constant over time. CCA ordination of physiographical units in relation to environmental parameters identified two main axes, an altitudinal gradient and an alkalinity gradient. Species composition of units corresponded to the main landscape pattern of alluvial plains, glacial lowlands, and higher grounds on Mesozoic rock. Species diversity showed a complex behavior. Diverse units were found both in alluvial plains and glacial lowlands of intermediate elevation. The study may help defining regionally differentiated reference states for stream management, benchmarking indicator scores of species and avoiding application of assessment methods outside their range of applicability.

Aquatic prey subsidies to riparian spiders in a stream with different land use types

Publication date: March 2015
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters, Volume 51
Author(s): Bonny Krell , Nina Röder , Moritz Link , René Gergs , Martin H. Entling , Ralf B. Schäfer
Land use related habitat degradation in freshwater ecosystems has considerably increased over the past decades, resulting in effects on the aquatic and the riparian communities. Previous studies, mainly in undisturbed systems, have shown that aquatic emergent insects contribute substantially to the diet of riparian predators. To evaluate the effect of land use on aquatic prey subsidies of riparian spiders, we performed a longitudinal study from June to August 2012 along a first order stream (Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany) covering three land use types: forest, meadow and vineyard. We determined the contribution of aquatic and terrestrial resources to the diet of web-weaving (Tetragnathidae spp.) and ground-dwelling ( Pardosa sp.) riparian spiders using stable isotope analyses of aquatic emergent insects and terrestrial arthropods. The contribution of aquatic and terrestrial sources differed between Tetragnathidae spp. and Pardosa sp. as well as among land use types. Tetragnathidae spp. consumed 80–100% of aquatic insects in the meadows and 45–65% in the forest and vineyards. Pardosa sp. consumed 5–15% of aquatic insects in the forest, whereas the proportions of aquatic and terrestrial sources were approximately 50% in the meadow and vineyard. Thus, aquatic emergent insects are an important subsidy to riparian spiders and land use is likely to affect the proportion of aquatic sources in the spider diet.

Decline in soil fertility in Africa threatens food security – Study – GhanaWeb


GhanaWeb

Decline in soil fertility in Africa threatens food security – Study
GhanaWeb
… in partnership with the United Nations University Institute for Natural Resources in Africa (UNU-INRA), World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) and Technische Universitat Dresden, Germany, is on the theme “Advancing Integrated Soil and Water Management

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Soil Fertility Decline in Sub-Saharan Africa Prompts Climate Adaptation Project – BusinessGhana

Soil Fertility Decline in Sub-Saharan Africa Prompts Climate Adaptation Project
BusinessGhana
… in partnership with the United Nations University Institute for Natural Resources in Africa (UNU-INRA), World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) and Technische Universitat Dresden, Germany, is on the theme "Advancing Integrated Soil and Water Management

Internal waves and mixing in a stratified reservoir: insights from three-dimensional modeling

Publication date: Available online 2 September 2014
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters
Author(s): Serghei A. Bocaniov , Christian Ullmann , Karsten Rinke , Kevin G. Lamb , Bertram Boehrer
In this study, the 3-dimensional (3D) Estuary and Lake Computer Model (ELCOM) was used to model a mid-sized reservoir (Rappbode Reservoir, Germany) during the period of summer stratification to identify and illustrate the source of internal waves as well as to characterize the water exchange between the hypolimnion and epilimnion under different wind speed conditions with a focal point on one episode of high and sustained winds. The modeling revealed that wind stress was the key driver of the observed internal waves while the role of water withdrawal was negligible. Our results also showed that within the range of wind speeds considered, wind-induced upwelling greatly enhanced mixing between the hypolimnion and epilimnion with a rate that varies approximately as the square of the wind speed. This numerical correlation affirmed that processes connected to wind stress, i.e. internal waves or direct upwelling, were responsible for the mixing of the hypolimnetic water into the surface water rather than direct input of turbulent kinetic energy.

Germany Breaks Solar Power Records Again – Permaculture Magazine


Permaculture Magazine

Germany Breaks Solar Power Records Again
Permaculture Magazine
Permaculture – practical solutions for self-reliance, a magazine filled with useful and inspiring features, stories and ideas about all aspects of sustainable living from gardening and farming to green building and renewable technology. Check out a

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Germany sets record for peak energy use – 50 percent comes from solar – Permaculture Magazine

Germany sets record for peak energy use – 50 percent comes from solar
Permaculture Magazine
The Fraunhofer ISE research institute has announced that Germany set a record high for solar use on June 9 – on that day the country's solar power output rose to 23.1 GW – 50.6 percent of all electricity demand. The record occurred over a holiday

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Long-term macrophyte mapping documents a continuously shift from native to non-native aquatic plant dominance in the thermally abnormal River Erft (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany)

Publication date: Available online 2 June 2014
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters
Author(s): Andreas Hussner
Macrophyte mappings of a 37 km stretch of the thermally abnormal Erft River in 2003, 2005, 2007, 2011 and 2013 documented the presence of nine alien ( Azolla filiculoides , Egeria densa , Eichhornia crassipes , Hydrocotyle ranunculoides , Hygrophila polysperma , Lemna minuta , Myriophyllum aquaticum , Pistia stratiotes and Vallisneria spiralis ) in addition to 15 native species. During the study period, the number of native plant species decreased significantly in the river sections, while the number of alien species remained constant. The relative plant mass (RPM) of native species decreased from 67 to 33%, while that of the alien species increased. Only two of the nine reported alien species ( V. spiralis and P. stratiotes ) increased their abundances within the study period and became the most dominant species in the Erft River, while the other introduced species did not show mass development. The highest decline in RPM have been found for native Sparganium emersum and alien E. densa. Summarizing, the evergreen alien V. spiralis and recently P. stratiotes were the most successful invader within this thermally abnormal river since 2003, most likely profiting from the high winter temperatures >10 °C and displacing native vegetation, particularly formerly widespread native S. emersum .

Agroforestry – The Revival of an Old Farming Concept – Deutsche Welle

Agroforestry – The Revival of an Old Farming Concept
Deutsche Welle
and if the roots are left intact, they will soon grow back again. Agroforestry, as it's called, dates back centuries, but now it's being rediscovered. Scientists in Germany are currently investigating whether it could be a good way to improve

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Renewable Energy Generation Hits All Time Highs in Denmark and Germany – Permaculture Magazine


Permaculture Magazine

Renewable Energy Generation Hits All Time Highs in Denmark and Germany
Permaculture Magazine
Denmark's and Germany's wind and solar electricity generation is peaking, covering much of their countries' need, setting the trend for energy systems that do not cost the Earth. Solar panels on houses in Germany via Greetechmedia. In the last month

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Scientists link pesticides & biodiversity loss

Many scientists rank biodiversity loss very high on their list of urgent global concerns. Chemical contaminants have long been understood as an important driver, but empirical evidence on a large scale has been sparse.

A new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences provides compelling data to fill this gap. Researchers found that biodiversity dropped in pesticide-laden streams in three countries: Germany, France and Australia.

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Paving the way for tech transfer – Thomson Reuters Foundation – Reuters AlertNet

Paving the way for tech transfer – Thomson Reuters Foundation
Reuters AlertNet
and Development Action in the Third World in Senegal; The Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center in Costa Rica; and the Kenya-based World Agroforestry Centre as well as organisations in Denmark, Germany and the United States.

Paving the way for tech transfer – Environmental Expert (press release)

Paving the way for tech transfer
Environmental Expert (press release)
and Development Action in the Third World in Senegal; The Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center in Costa Rica; and the Kenya-based World Agroforestry Centre as well as organisations in Denmark, Germany and the United States.

Diet of fishes in a detritus-based sandy lowland brook

Available online 26 March 2013
Publication year: 2013
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters

To assess the trophic relationships of consumers in a sandy lowland brook (Ladberger Mühlenbach, Northrhine-Westphalia, Germany) the fish as well as the benthic communities were sampled monthly over half a year. Analysis of stomach contents of the fishes revealed two different feeding types: detritivores (including only Cyprinidae; foremost roach, Rutilus rutilus and Prussian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio ) and benthivores (mostly stone loach, Barbatula barbatula and three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus ). The detritivores mainly foraged on detritus, but also benthic invertebrates were found in their stomachs. This latter prey (especially some Trichoptera and Coleoptera, which were selected with a high preference) is strongly associated to hard substrates, only present in the brook as coarse detritus. Benthivore fishes only foraged on benthic invertebrates, mostly Gammaridae and Chironomidae, which were the most dominant elements of the macrozoobenthos. Niche overlap between these two foraging groups was very low, while the within-group overlap was rather high. As food could not be shown to be a limiting factor, a direct competition for food between most of these species in this brook seems most unlikely.

Key environmental variables affecting the ichthyofaunal composition of groyne fields in the middle Elbe River, Germany

Available online 8 February 2013
Publication year: 2013
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters

During its development into an important waterway the middle Elbe River underwent many anthropogenic influences, all of which strongly impacted the fish fauna assemblage. Both the river morphology and hydrology were affected by groyne field construction, with consequential changes of fish habitats along river banks. Variables in the ichthyofaunal composition of middle Elbe River groyne field areas and types were analyzed for their environmental influence based on data using a random point-abundance-sampling-strategy with an electrofishing device. Altogether 22 fish species and hybrids of cyprinids from eight families, mostly cyprinids and percids, were found. Habitat guilds were dominated by eurytopic fish species (40%), followed by the oligorheophilic guild (24%). The reproductive guilds were represented mainly by phyto-lithophils (36%) and phytophils (28%). The feeding guilds were dominated by benthivorous species (32%), followed by omnivorous and piscivorous species (each 24%). Most frequent were roach ( Rutilus rutilus , 32.6%), perch ( Perca fluviatilis , 29.7%), and ide ( Leuciscus idus , 25.6%). The canonical correspondence analysis indicated that substrate, slope, and vegetation cover were the most important factors affecting the entire fish assemblage, including all age groups. The types of groyne fields were found to be mostly of minor importance with regard to differences in the ichthyofaunal structure. Fish assemblage at groyne heads and surrounding areas were compared to those in the siltation and static flow areas, whereby rheophilic fish species occurred most often at the groyne head and surrounding areas. The greatest temporal changes within the young-of-the-year (YOY) fish fauna were during the summer months June to August, where habitat shifts among the groyne field areas were a result of changes in YOY habitat requirements throughout the year. Hence, this study indicates that groyne fields are used as alternative habitats by a high number of different fish species and life stages and could therefore contribute to sustain a species-reach fish fauna in regulated lowland rivers.

Finally! EPA bans nasty rodenticides

I have some very good news: EPA is banning a group of rat poisons known to be especially dangerous for children, pets and wildlife. Finally.

Apparently, the agency got tired of waiting for the manufacturer of d-Con mouse- and rat-killing products to voluntarily follow their safety guidelines. Instead, Germany-based Reckitt Benckiser was spending its energy pushing back with an army of lawyers and lobbyists. This time, their tactics backfired.

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Common pesticides kill frogs, say scientists

Frogs exposed to commonly used pesticides in the lab had mortality rates between 40-100%, according to a new study in Germany. One fungicide, when applied at doses approved for use, caused frogs to die within an hour.

The new study provides strong support for earlier research pointing to pesticide exposure as a contributor to the global decline of amphibians, a disturbing trend that has puzzled researchers for years. Like canaries in a coal mine, frogs are often considered a "sentinel" species — and declines may be an early warning of broader harms.

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Influence of sediment on the growth of the invasive macrophyte Najas marina ssp. intermedia in lakes

Available online 22 December 2012
Publication year: 2012
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters

Najas marina ssp. intermedia (Wolfg. ex Gorski) Casper ( Najas intermedia ) is a thermophile macrophyte species native to Central Europe, which started mass spreading across Southern Germany about 10 years ago, almost reaching the intensity of the invasive neophyte Elodea nuttallii . As part of a study to examine the spread of N. intermedia with regard to climate change, predominant populations of N. intermedia were continuously monitored. The observations revealed that some areas and lakes remained free of N. intermedia , although water temperatures and light conditions were similar to locations with predominant populations of N. intermedia . As a result, growth experiments were conducted to show that the properties of the lake sediment can affect the growth of N. intermedia . Four lakes without populations of N. intermedia and with different environmental conditions were chosen as experimental sites. During the experiments eight different sediments from four different lakes were used. Five sediments were collected from sites with extensive or predominant Najas populations, three sediments originated from locations with no or minor amounts of N. intermedia . The experiments revealed that the sediment from different lakes as well as from different locations within the same lake significantly differs in nutrient concentration and density and that those differences can affect the growth of N. intermedia . Plants growing in nutrient-rich sediment (SRP: 15 mg 100 g−1 soil, Total-P: 50 mg 100 g−1 soil) reached with 43.1 (±6.9) mm day−1, compared to 6.9 (±2.0) mm day−1 in sediment with lower nutrient concentrations (SRP: 2 mg 100 g−1 soil, Total-P: 10 mg 100 g−1 soil), higher growth rates and were less affected by the density of the sediment. The density of the sediment, on the other hand, played a significant role under conditions with low nutrient concentrations, respectively when sediments with similar nutrient concentrations were compared. For example, a comparison of sediments with a soluble phosphor concentration of 2 mg 100 g−1 soil and a total phosphor concentration of 10 mg 100 g−1 soil showed that plants growing in sediment with 75.7% particles > 0.063 mm reached twice the growth rates (6.9 ± 2.0 mm day−1) than plant growing in sediment with only 47% particles >0.063 mm (1.7 ± 0.6 mm day−1). Nutrient-poor sediment (SRP: <1 mg 100 g−1 soil, Total-P: <1 mg 100 g−1 soil), inhibited the growth of N. intermedia (0.8 ± 0.2 mm day−1). The significantly different growth rates of N. intermedia show that the lake sediment, respectively the nutrient concentration and density must be included in assessments and models regarding the growth and spread of N. intermedia .

Pesticide harms are global — & often invisible

This week we mark the International Week of No Pesticide Use, which honors victims of pesticide poisonings across the world. A week which I wish did not need to exist.

Unfortunately, the problem is very real. According to the World Health Organization, 25 million farmworkers experience episodes of pesticide poisoning in the Global South every year. A new report by PAN Germany highlights this and other sobering facts, illustrating how pesticides continue to harm millions across the globe — and making a compelling case that it's time for real change.

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Feeding ecology and ecological impact of an alien ‘warm-water’ omnivore in cold lakes

Available online 4 December 2012
Publication year: 2012
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters

The present study attempted to investigate the feeding ecology and ecological impact of Procambarus clarkii , the world’s worst invasive crayfish and a recent invader in colder climates, by linking stomach-content analysis with an in situ enclosure experiment in lakes in southern Germany. The stomach-content analysis showed that P. clarkii is a polytrophic omnivore that feeds on macrophytes, detritus and macroinvertebrates. The trophic diversity of its diet was highest in mid-summer and in smaller crayfish. Chironomidae larvae and Dreissena polymorpha were the most preferred prey, whereas sediment-dwelling taxa were rarely consumed. The number of consumed small and agile prey negatively correlated with the crayfish size, suggesting an ontogenetic shift in diet. A five-week enclosure experiment was used to determine the impact of P. clarkii on the basal levels of a typical littoral food web of cold lakes at different crayfish densities (0, 2.5, and 5 crayfish m−2). The abundance of aquatic snails sharply decreased with increasing crayfish density and conditioned leaf breakdown was up to five times higher in the presence of crayfish than in the control treatment without crayfish. Crayfish also had a negative effect on macrophyte biomass, resulting from both consumption and uprooting. However, the impact mechanisms and outcomes differed among macrophyte species. In the crayfish treatments, the final biomass of the indigenous Myriophyllum spicatum and Chara sp. was significantly reduced relative to the initially stocked biomass, whereas the alien Elodea nuttallii was able to gain biomass. This finding is consistent with an invasional meltdown scenario, in that P. clarkii indirectly facilitated a dominance of E. nuttallii . Overall, the results concordantly suggest that P. clarkii is a keystone species that can profoundly alter recipient communities via direct trophic links and non-consumptive destruction, and may indirectly facilitate other invasive alien species.

Sex- and size-specific migration patterns and habitat preferences of invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana)

Publication year: 2012
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters
Sebastian Wutz, Juergen Geist
In freshwater ecosystems, the invasion of alien crayfishes is considered a major threat to native populations. In particular, signal crayfish ( Pacifastacus leniusculus ) are increasingly replacing native stone and noble crayfish populations in Europe. In this study, population characteristics, habitat preference, as well as sex- and size-specific migration patterns of signal crayfish were analyzed within a model study section in the river Moosach (Danube drainage), Germany. A total of 1162 crayfish at a minimum population density of 0.4 specimens per m2 and a sex ratio of 1.18 males to 1 female were found. Habitat preference was size-specific, with smaller specimens preferring shallow, gravel-dominated sites, and large animals preferring deep, saprobel-dominated sites. Migration behavior was strongly influenced by the sex and size of the crayfish, with large males showing the greatest migration distances of up to 300 m within 7 days. The correlation between the migration distance and the time period between capture and recapture was generally low but strongest for small female crayfish. The results of this study suggest that local population characteristics, particularly the density, size-distribution and sex ratios, can strongly influence the dispersal ability of invasive crayfish.

Feeding and niche differentiation in three invasive gobies in the Lower Rhine, Germany

Publication year: 2012
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters
Jost Borcherding, Miriam Dolina, Lisa Heermann, Philipp Knutzen, Stefanie Krüger, Sven Matern, Ruben van Treeck, Svenja Gertzen
Since 2006, three invasive Gobiids from the Ponto-Caspian area established in the River Rhine and their abundances nowadays regularly exceed 80% of the fish community. Between 2009 and 2011, densities of gobies in the Rhine increased while their condition decreased, assuming that the populations are approaching or even reached the capacity of the ecosystem. Consequently, we hypothesized a high level of competition on food resources within this group of invasive gobies that all exhibit the same sedentary life style, which might strengthen the differentiation of the ecological niche on a spatial and temporal axis. Invasive gobies were caught with electro fishing and beach seining in different types of habitats over a period of two years in the Lower Rhine, analyzing the food of more than 1500 gobies of the three species Neogobius fluviatilis (NF), Neogobius melanostomus (NM) and Ponticola kessleri (PK). All species showed an opportunistic feeding strategy. In NF and PK, a clear shift in preferred food resources was observed between individuals smaller and larger 50 mm that occurred in parallel with a habitat shift from sandy areas to riprap structures in PK, but not in NF that were only found on gravel and sand. In contrast, there were no distinct changes in food and habitat preference in NM. Small NM were found from spring to autumn on the sandy nearshore areas where they competed on food resources with juvenile PK in spring, and with NF in late summer, respectively. Abundance of juvenile NF and NM increased during the night in sandy nearshore areas in October. This behavior is assumed as predator avoidance against large piscivorous NF as well as native pikeperch, because active feeding occurred mainly during the day. The results on the three invasive Gobiids in the Lower Rhine give important hints how fine-tuned spatial and temporal characteristics in intra- and inter-specific competition shape the ecological niche of these invaders in their new environment.

Efficiency of sampling invertebrates in groundwater habitats

Publication year: 2012
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters
Simon Gutjahr, Jörg Bork, Susanne I. Schmidt, Hans Jürgen Hahn
Sampling efficiency is directly linked to (faunistic) stability issues of any sampled site. It is more probable to sample a high proportion of the species occurring at a certain site, if communities remain constant in species composition with time. For this study 64 groundwater monitoring wells in Southwestern Germany were sampled six times to determine sampling efficiency. False-Negative (FN) rates and SIMPER values, two independent models expressing Faunistic values of the sampled bores, were calculated and three groups of faunistic stability could be identified based on calculated SIMPER-values. FN-rates as well as SIMPER values proved to be a valuable approach for the estimation of faunistic stability/instability, as these methods showed a highly negative correlation with each other. To collect 95% of species a number of 1.7–16.4 samples was calculated to be necessary depending on faunistic stability of the sampled habitat. On the six sampling occasions the sites harbouring a stable groundwater meiofauna resulted in 98.2% of occurring species, whereas the percentage decreased over intermediate sites (94.9%) and stressed sites (79.5%). A consequence of the data presented may be to view surveys using only two samples as campaign with orienting character, with further studies of stability issues of groundwater communities which would provide efficient and effective sampling for various kinds of sites.

Factors shaping submerged bryophyte communities: A conceptual model for small mountain streams in Germany

Publication year: 2012
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters, Volume 42, Issue 3
Horst Tremp, Dorothea Kampmann, Ralf Schulz
Several models explaining species composition of aquatic bryophytes are available for specific regions. However, a more general, conceptual model applicable to a broader range of regions is lacking. We present a conceptual model ranking environmental factors determining submerged bryophyte communities in small mountain streams. It was tested on a dataset of 54 stream sections after removing the effect of stream size and altitude. Species responses were modeled with pH as predictor variable based on 97 stream sites covering six mountain regions all over Germany. Multiple regressions revealed the importance of primary growth factors (light, Ep(CO 2 )) and substrate for the total submerged bryophyte coverage. The known distinction of hard- and softwater bryoflora was clearly supported. The floristic composition of headwaters was predominantly determined by the bicarbonate/ionic strength complex. Species response to pH values supported this result and thus our conceptual model. The primary growth resources light, Ep(CO 2 ) and availability of coarse streambed material explained one third ( R adjusted 2 = 0.34) of total submerged bryophyte cover. Disturbances, predominantly spates, reduce biomass but do not affect the basic floristic structure. In conclusion, conceptual models and monitoring methods focusing on aquatic bryophytes need to clearly distinguish “aquatic” from “submersed by chance”. All “aquatic bryophytes” found in Germany can also occur at least temporarily at non-submerged sites. Therefore, a distinction between primary growth factors and additional resources is recommended to disentangle factors determining aquatic bryophyte communities.