Climate driven changes in the submerged macrophyte and phytoplankton community in a hard water lake

Publication date: Available online 3 April 2015
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters
Author(s): Wojciech Ejankowski , Tomasz Lenard
We studied the changes in the submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and phytoplankton community in a hard water lake during different meteorological conditions. We hypothesised that variations in climatic conditions (precipitation and temperature) can influence the physicochemical parameters of water and, in turn, affect SAV and phytoplankton development. The investigations were performed in Lake Rogóźno (the West Polesie region, Eastern Poland) over 10 years from 2003 to 2013. The physicochemical parameters, the structure of macrophytes and the phytoplankton community in the dry (2003-2006, DP) and wet periods (2007-2013, WP) were analysed. Between the dry and wet periods, the water colour and the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increased considerably, whereas water conductivity decreased. Other parameters (concentration of nutrients, water reaction and transparency) were comparable during both periods. When the precipitation and water level were low (DP), charophytes dominated the SAV and cyanobacteria dominated the phytoplankton community. After the precipitation and water level increased (WP), the charophyte population declined and the vascular plants and bryophytes dominated. Furthermore, flagellated algae belonging to the dinophytes and cryptophytes were the most numerous in the phytoplankton community. These changes in the SAV and phytoplankton were linked with the variations of physicochemical parameters determined by the total precipitation and mean air temperature in March.

Human waterborne protozoan parasites in freshwater bivalves (Anodonta anatina and Unio tumidus) as potential indicators of fecal pollution in urban reservoir

Publication date: Available online 6 December 2014
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters
Author(s): Anna Słodkowicz-Kowalska , Anna C. Majewska , Piotr Rzymski , Łukasz Skrzypczak , Anna Werner
The presence of environmentally robust dispersive stages of intestinal protozoan parasites in waters represents an important public health threat since these pathogens have caused numerous outbreaks related to either drinking or recreational waters. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia and Blastocystis cysts, and microsporidian spores in mussels collected from municipal reservoir, Lake Malta (Poland, Europe). Two species of freshwater bivalves ( Anodonta anatina and Unio tumidus ) were tested for the enteropathogens. A direct wet smear and smears stained with chromotrope 2R, Ziehl-Neelsen and iron hematoxylin made from each pellet of the hemolymph, gills and gastrointestinal homogenates of mussels were examined microscopically. In the study the immunofluorescence antibody test kit MERIFLUOR Cryptosporidium/Giardia was also used for all bivalve samples. None of investigated parasites were found in U. tumidus . In A. anatina , Cryptosporidium oocysts and Blastocystis cysts were detected in 15.4 and 5.1% of mussel samples, respectively. The present results indicate contamination of Lake Malta with Cryptosporidium and Blastocystis , which is important from the point of view of public health threats because of different human uses of studied reservoir.

Application of the new multimetric MMI_PL index for biological water quality assessment in reference and human-impacted streams (Poland, the Slovak Republic)

Publication date: Available online 16 September 2014
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters
Author(s): Iga Lewin , Szymon Jusik , Krzysztof Szoszkiewicz , Izabela Czerniawska-Kusza , Agnieszka Ewa Ławniczak
A new multimetric MMI_PL index, which is based on the macroinvertebrate composition and combines six single key metrics, has already been implemented in Poland according to the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive. The objectives of our survey were to assess the biological water quality using the new multimetric MMI_PL index in both reference and human-impacted streams, to analyse whether the values of the new multimetric index properly reflect the ecological status of the water in upland and mountain streams as well as to determine which environmental factors influence the distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates and the values of the metrics. The study was carried out from 2007 to 2010 in three Ecoregions that were established by the EU WFD. A total of 60 sampling sites: 36 reference sites that were situated in the headwaters of mountain streams at mid- and high altitudes and 24, human-impacted sampling sites were selected. The benthic macroinvertebrate surveys were supported by both a hydromorphological and macrophyte assessment according to the River Habitat Survey (RHS) and to the Macrophyte Methods for Rivers. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that the values of the Habitat Quality Assessment (HQA) index, conductivity, pH and altitude were the parameters most associated (statistically significant) with the distribution of benthic macroinvertebrate taxa and the values of the metrics in both the reference and human-impacted (impaired) sections of the streams in Ecoregions 9, 10 and 14. The new MMI_PL index was useful for biological water quality assessment and was also important for separating both the reference and impaired sections of streams. The MMI_PL index and some key metrics performed contrary to what was expected in relation to the reference high-altitude siliceous streams (the High Tatra Mts., Ecoregion 10). Low values of multimetric index and key metrics did not properly reflect their high ecological status and pristine character as reflected by the hydromorphological (RHS) and macrophyte surveys or the physical and chemical parameters of the water.

Hydrological connectivity as most probable key driver of chlorophyll and nutrients in oxbow lakes of the Bug River (Poland)

Publication date: March 2014
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters, Volume 46
Author(s): Lech Kufel , Szymon Leśniczuk
Concentrations of chlorophyll, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus, total phosphorus and suspended solids were analysed in 10 oxbow lakes of the Bug River in spring and summer. According to their connectivity with the river, all lakes were divided into 3 categories – lakes connected with the river channel but separated from the floodplain inputs, lakes connected with the river but receiving inputs from the floodplain and totally isolated lakes. Connected lakes showed significantly higher concentrations of available nutrients and chlorophyll but the relationship between the two variables was weak in the spring and non-existent in the summer. Suspended solids were also more abundant in connected than in isolated lakes. Analyses of the proportion of chlorophyll and particulate phosphorus in suspension led us to the conclusion that water movement in connected lakes inhibited sedimentation and kept algae in the water column. Isolated oxbow lakes devoid of wind-driven mixing were more susceptible to algal sedimentation which would explain the differences observed between the two lake categories.

Hydrological connectivity as most probable key driver of chlorophyll and nutrients in oxbow lakes of the Bug River (Poland)

Publication date: Available online 29 January 2014
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters
Author(s): Lech Kufel , Szymon Leśniczuk
Concentrations of chlorophyll, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus, total phosphorus and suspended solids were analysed in 10 oxbow lakes of the Bug River in spring and summer. According to their connectivity with the river, all lakes were divided into 3 categories–lakes connected with the river channel but separated from the floodplain inputs, lakes connected with the river but receiving inputs from the floodplain and totally isolated lakes. Connected lakes showed significantly higher concentrations of available nutrients and chlorophyll but the relationship between the two variables was weak in the spring and non-existent in the summer. Suspended solids were also more abundant in connected than in isolated lakes. Analyses of the proportion of chlorophyll and particulate phosphorus in suspension led us to the conclusion that water movement in connected lakes inhibited sedimentation and kept algae in the water column. Isolated oxbow lakes devoid of wind-driven mixing were more susceptible to algal sedimentation which would explain the differences observed between the two lake categories.

Polish Farmers Protest Sale of Land for GM Crops – Permaculture Magazine


Permaculture Magazine

Polish Farmers Protest Sale of Land for GM Crops
Permaculture Magazine
A farmers' protest against a government sell-off of farmland to multinational corporations is now in its 5th week in Zachodniopomorskie region of Poland and is spreading to other Provinces. The government 'ban' of GM seeds in Poland 'is a fabrication

Two techniques of ostracod (Ostracoda, Crustacea) extraction from organic detritus-rich sediments

Available online 9 January 2013
Publication year: 2013
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters

The performance of two simple techniques of ostracod (Ostracoda, Crustacea) extraction from detritus-rich bottom sediment: sediment aeration and sedimentary environment deterioration, was tested on samples collected in a large lowland river (River Odra, western part of Poland). The aeration technique, applied to preserved samples, involved bubbling air into the sediment sample overlain with water. The animals would adhere to the bubble surface, whereby they would be brought to the water layer and cling to the water surface. The environment deterioration technique, applied to unpreserved sediment (assumed to contain live ostracods), involved placing a sediment-filled hour glass in a water-filled vessel overnight. At night, meiobenthic animals would leave the sediment and move to the aqueous phase from which they could be easily collected. Compared to hand sorting, both techniques substantially (by an average of about 87% in aeration and about 70% in deterioration) reduced extraction time. In terms of efficiency, performance of both techniques was species-dependent. The aeration technique was found to be selective towards smooth-carapace species, and performed satisfactorily (extraction efficiency of more than 80% in most cases) due to the preponderance of smooth-carapace species in the area of study. The deterioration technique, too, showed significant between-species differences in amenability to extraction; those species supposedly less tolerant to deteriorating conditions and possessing swimming setae would be preferentially extracted. The ostracod assemblage in this study was dominated by species capable of swimming and supposed to have low tolerance to deteriorating conditions, for which reason the technique, in most cases, performed with efficiency exceeding 60%.

Poland says no to Monsanto but allows trading of GM seeds – Permaculture Magazine

Poland says no to Monsanto but allows trading of GM seeds
Permaculture Magazine
For information on sustainable approaches to agriculture, see Permaculture Magazine issue 72 Summer 2012 (also available as digital PDF) which contains 'Feed the World', and article by Patrick Whitefield that looks at how and whether permaculture can

Metal accumulation and distribution in the organs of Typha latifolia L. (cattail) and their potential use in bioindication

Available online 5 December 2012
Publication year: 2012
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters

The content of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co and Cr in different organs of Typha latifolia L., from 14 sites selected within five small ponds near Olesno in southwest Poland, were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Three groups of metals, each with different accumulation pattern within the plant were distinguished in this study. Pb, Cu, Co and Zn were found to be the least mobile and shown the following accumulation scheme: roots > rhizomes > lower leave part > top leave part > stems. By contrast Mn, a metal which is easily transported in plants exhibited the following accumulation scheme: roots > top leave part > lower leave part > rhizomes > stems. Ni, Cr and Fe were accumulated by the cattail as follows: roots > rhizomes > top leave part > lower leave part > stems. A detectable concentration of Cd was found in the organs of the plant showing the following distribution pattern: roots > rhizomes > stems. The fact that T. latifolia had the highest proportion of all the metals studied in its roots suggests an existence of some kind of protection barrier preventing toxic compounds from permeating to rhizomes and aerial parts of the plant from its roots. T. latifolia can be used in bioindication of Mn, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu and Co.

Phenology of the aquatic fern Salvinia natans (L.) All. in the Vistula Delta in the context of climate warming

Publication year: 2012
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters
Agnieszka Gałka, Józef Szmeja
We determined the phenology and architecture of Salvinia natans life stages by observing permanent plots in the Vistula Delta (Baltic Sea Region, N Poland) biweekly from 2006 to 2010. Germination of macro- and microspores was initiated at 12.4 ± 0.2 °C water temperature corresponding to early-April water temperature in the Vistula Delta. Early development of the female gametophyte took place at 14.2 ± 0.4 °C, and late development, with fertilization, at 18.3 ± 1.5 °C (April/May). Gametophyte development required about 35 days. During the study years the density of early gametophyte populations was 2522 ± 3327/0.25 m2, but only 437 ± 326/0.25 m2 for late-stage populations. The drop in density was due to ground frost in April. Due to climate warming in the Baltic Sea Region, ground frost occurs less frequently than previously, leading to the expansion of Salvinia natans in the Vistula Delta. Sporophyte development required about 170 days. The early juvenile sporophyte (J a ) consists of a floating leaf and a submerged leaf rudiment. Its development took about three weeks at 16.8 ± 1.2 °C. The late juvenile sporophyte (J b ) has a fully developed submerged leaf and lasts about four weeks at 18.4 ± 0.7 °C. The density of J a populations was 432.7 ± 413.4/0.25 m2, but only 9.6 ± 12.9/0.25 m2 for J b populations. The density drop in J b populations was caused by spring ground frost. A mature individual consists of 2.1 ± 1.1 modules (structural units of a clone), 6.8 ± 4.5 modules for a spore-producing one. Senile individuals disintegrated into modules and died at 2.0 ± 1.1 °C. For about 160 days from autumn to early spring, Salvinia natans was found at the bottom of watercourses in the form of spores.

The conservation of small water reservoirs in the Krajeńskie Lakeland (North-West Poland)

Publication year: 2012
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters
Barbara Waldon
This study comprised an inventory of vascular plants in 450 small water reservoirs (up to 1 ha in size). Most water bodies (76%) in the study area (Krajeńskie Lakeland, NW, Poland) were located in an agricultural landscape, typical of the region. A total of 576 species of vascular plants were recorded. Of these, about 76% were native species, 34 taxa were listed as legally protected in Poland and endangered in the region (Western Pomerania) or in Poland. 201 plant communities were identified, including 128 associations. Depending on the surrounding habitat, the following groups of ponds were identified: (1) mid-forest ponds; (2) mid-wetland ponds; ponds between arable fields, including (3) water basins with wide, well developed ecotone zones and (4) ponds with narrow or disturbed contact zones; and (5) ponds in urban areas. 30 ponds of each type were compared in detail. Differentiation and plant species richness of small water reservoirs was dependent on landscape type. The richest ponds were located within fields but isolated from their surroundings by a natural belt of rushes or trees, whilst mid-forest ponds were the poorest. Valorization was based on the presence of valuable flora (e.g. native, rare, and endangered species) and plant communities. This revealed that mid-forest and mid-wetland ponds were the most natural, while ponds in urban areas were the most strongly transformed. Ponds in the study area ( n = 450) were also analysed for anthropogenic impacts. Anthropogenic stressors were observed in 51% of ponds. The most serious threats to the ponds of the Krajeńskie Lakeland were deterioration due to drainage and eutrophication. Over 35% of ponds were connected to a network of drainage ditches, with the highest percentage (57.1%) found in mid-forest ponds type.

Do macrophytes, diatoms and non-diatom benthic algae give redundant information? Results from a case study in Poland

Publication year: 2012
Source:Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters, Volume 42, Issue 3
Susanne C. Schneider, A.E. Lawniczak, J. Picińska-Faltynowicz, K. Szoszkiewicz
We analyzed species composition and abundance of macrophytes, diatoms and non-diatom benthic algae, water chemistry and habitat structure of 24 river sites in Poland, in order to better understand which parameters structure macrophyte and benthic algae communities. Community patterns for macrophytes and diatoms are most closely related, while macrophytes and non-diatom benthic algae have the weakest relationship. Environmental parameters best explaining community patterns are channel substrate parameters for non-diatom benthic algae, and a combination of channel substrate and river bank characteristics for submerged macrophytes, emergent macrophytes and diatoms. Among the organism groups investigated, the diatom community pattern is best correlated to the environmental data similarity matrix. We hypothesize that the results can be explained by the shorter generation time of diatoms compared to macrophytes, and by a higher dispersal rate of diatoms compared to macrophytes and non-diatom benthic algae. This has several practical consequences for bioindication: (1) Diatoms are usually the organism group most closely following environmental parameters, for both increasing and decreasing impact. (2) Since the biotic indices developed for the Water Framework Directive are meant to primarily indicate ecological changes, not water chemistry, the nature of diatoms to closely reflect water chemistry is not necessarily advantageous. (3) The applicability of macrophyte and probably also non-diatom benthic algae indices is more locally restricted, while diatom indices are applicable to greater areas. (4) In ecosystems which are subject to changing environmental conditions, differences in biotic indices between macrophytes, diatoms and non-diatom benthic algae are to be expected. These differences could provide information relating to ecosystem stability. (5) In stable ecosystems, analyzing one of the three organism groups “diatoms”, “non-diatom benthic algae” and “macrophytes” will be sufficient to characterize the quality element “macrophytes and phytobenthos”, as required by the Water Framework Directive. However, in ecosystems subject to increasing pressure, macrophytes likely will have a tendency to indicate “too good”, while in ecosystems subject to decreasing pressure, diatoms will have a tendency to indicate “too good”.